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Январь 2021

ben stock cispa

2014. “How the Web Tangled Itself: Uncovering the History of Client-Side Web (In)Security.” In, Stock, Ben, Bernd Kaiser, Stephan Pfistner, Sebastian Lekies, and Martin Johns. (*) The Training (*) The Danish Accreditation Institution is an academically independent authority within the state administration (affiliated with The Ministry of Higher Education & Science) Partner. 2014. “Call to Arms: a Tale of the Weaknesses of Current Client-Side Xss Filtering.”, Stock, Ben, and Martin Johns. Open Access Media. Sched.com Conference Mobile Apps. Im Rahmen dieser Studie, konnten wir 6.167 derartige Verwundbarkeiten identifizieren, die sich auf 480 der untersuchten Anwendungen verteilen. Led by the idea that the attacker cannot fabricate the number of hops between the amplifier and the victim, Hop Count Filtering (HCF) mechanisms that analyze the Time to Live of incoming packets have been proposed as a solution. Tenure-Track Faculty. In practice, JStap outperforms existing systems, which we reimplemented and tested on our dataset totaling over 270,000 samples. We show the pitfalls of email-based communications, such as the impact of anti-spam filters, the lack of trust by recipients, and hesitations to fix vulnerabilities despite awareness. The downside of this practice is that such external code runs in the same context and with the same privileges as the first-party code. Modern Web sites frequently generate JavaScript on-the- fly via server-side scripting, incorporating personalized user data in the process. Our analysis shows that while the JavaScript delivered by kits varies greatly, the unpacked code varies much less, due to the kits authors’ code reuse between versions. Today, the most common source of drive-by downloads are socalled exploit kits (EKs). 2015. Based on these findings, we then assess the advent of corresponding vulnerability classes, investigate their prevalence over time, and analyze the security mechanisms developed and deployed to mitigate them. Given the results of our study, we provide a secure and functionally equivalent alternative to the use of dynamic scripts. It implements the communication features of Waledac but does not cause any harm, i.e., no spam emails are sent and no other commands are executed. “Assessing the Impact of Script Gadgets on CSP at Scale.” In, Fass, Aurore, Michael Backes, and Ben Stock. Therefore, the community lacks in-depth knowledge about the actual prevalence of Persistent Client-Side XSS in the wild. The number one programming language in Web applications is PHP, powering more than 80% of the top ten million websites. 2009. 2014. For reproducibility and direct deployability of our modules, we make our system publicly available. To close this research gap, we leverage taint tracking to identify suspicious flows from client-side persistent storage (Web Storage, cookies) to dangerous sinks (HTML, JavaScript, and script.src). A first layer of unanimous voting classifies 93% of our dataset with an accuracy of 99.73%, while a second layer–based on an alternative modules’ combination–labels another 6.5% of our initial dataset with an accuracy over 99%. The issues related to disclosing the vulnerability information to the affected parties, however, have only been treated as a side note in prior research. We show the efficacy and the scalability of our approach by reporting on an analysis of 1,854 popular open-source projects, comprising almost 80 million lines of code. “Kizzle: A Signature Compiler for Detecting Exploit Kits.” In, Stock, Ben, Giancarlo Pellegrino, Christian Rossow, Martin Johns, and Michael Backes. To that end, we report on a notification experiment targeting more than 24,000 domains, which allowed us to analyze what technical and human aspects are roadblocks to a successful campaign. As recently shown by Lekies et al., injecting script markup is not a necessary prerequisite for a successful attack in the presence of so-called script gadgets. The Web today is a growing universe of pages and applications teeming with interactive content. Given the results of our study, we provide a secure and functionally equivalent alternative to the use of dynamic scripts. Even though the analysis is entirely static, it yields a high detection accuracy of almost 99.5% and has a low false-negative rate of 0.54%. Aurore Fass. Skip slideshow. Ben Stock CISPA Helmholtz Center for Information Security Abstract Click-jacking protection on the modern Web is commonly enforced via client-side security mechanisms for framing control, like the X-Frame-Options header (XFO) and Con-tent Security Policy (CSP). “From Facepalm to Brain Bender: Exploring Client-Side Cross-Site Scripting.”, Backes, Michael, Thorsten Holz, Christian Rossow, Teemu Rytilahti, Milivoj Simeonovski, and Ben Stock. Address. To achieve this performance, however, such an approach must allow for a tolerance of +/-2 hops. Ironically, this well-regarded software engineering practice allows us to build a scalable and precise detector that is able to quickly respond to superficial but frequent changes in EKs. In this paper, we leverage the unique vantage point of the Internet Archive to conduct a historical and longitudinal analysis of how CSP deployment has evolved for a set of 10,000 highly ranked domains. Search Search. We discuss two attacker models capable of injecting malicious payloads into these storages, i.e., a network attacker capable of temporarily hijacking HTTP communication (e.g., in a public WiFi), and a Web attacker who can leverage flows into storage or an existing reflected XSS flaw to persist their payload. (2009/2010). In this paper, we propose JStap, a modular static JavaScript detection system, which extends the detection capability of existing lexical and AST-based pipelines by also leveraging control and data flow information. View the profiles of professionals named "Ben Stock" on LinkedIn. Even worse, if we only consider sites that make use of data originating from storages, 21% of the sites are vulnerable. Thus, it effectively removes the root-cause of Client-Side XSS without affecting first-party code in this respective. However, as it offloads the work to the user’s browser, it can be used to engage in malicious activities such as Crypto-Mining, Drive-by-Download attacks, or redirections to web sites hosting malicious software. Uncovering the insights which fueled this development bears the potential to not only gain a historical perspective on client-side Web security, but also to outline better practices going forward. 2020. “Assessing the Impact of Script Gadgets on CSP at Scale.” In, Calzavara, Stefano, Sebastian Roth, Alvise Rabitti, Michael Backes, and Ben Stock. In addition, we gain insights into other factors related to the existence of client-side XSS flaws, such as missing knowledge of browser-provided APIs, and find that the root causes for Client-Side Cross-Site Scripting range from unaware developers to incompatible first- and third-party code. We present our infiltration of the Waledac botnet, which can be seen as the successor of the Storm Worm botnet. In particular, a standard trained classifier has over 99.7% false-negatives with HideNoSeek inputs, while a classifier trained on such samples has over 96% false-positives, rendering the targeted static detectors unreliable. To examine the efficiency and feasibility of our approach, we present a practical implementation based on the open source browser Chromium. Our detector is composed of ten modules, including five different ways of abstracting code, with differing levels of context and semantic information, and two ways of extracting features. Before joining CISPA, I was a PhD student and research fellow at the Security Research Group of the University Erlangen-Nuremberg, supervised by Felix Freiling. Furthermore, we propose an alternative password manager design, which robustly prevents the identified attacks, while maintaining compatibility with the established functionality of the existing approaches. 2019. “JStap: A Static Pre-Filter for Malicious JavaScript Detection.” In, Stock, Ben, Giancarlo Pellegrino, Frank Li, Michael Backes, and Christian Rossow. Stuhlsatzenhaus 5 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany) Members. To examine the efficiency and feasibility of our approach, we present a practical implementation based on the open source browser Chromium. When evaluated over a four-week period, false-positive rates for Kizzle are under 0.03%, while the false-negative rates are under 5%. As ScriptProtect is realized through a lightweight JavaScript instrumentation, it does not require changes to the browser and only incurs a low runtime overhead of about 6%. In particular, HideNoSeek uses malicious seeds and searches for similarities at the Abstract Syntax Tree (AST) level between the seeds and traditional benign scripts. Ben Stock. A first layer of unanimous voting classifies 93% of our dataset with an accuracy of 99.73%, while a second layer–based on an alternative modules’ combination–labels another 6.5% of our initial dataset with an accuracy over 99%. In combination with a taint-aware browsing engine, we can therefore collect important execution trace information for all flaws. The downside of this practice is that such external code runs in the same context and with the same privileges as the first-party code. Although this issues has been known for several years under the term Cross-Site Script Inclusion, it has not been analyzed in-depth on the Web. To achieve this performance, however, such an approach must allow for a tolerance of +/-2 hops. — Towards More Successful Web Vulnerability Notifications.” In, Fass, Aurore, Robert Krawczyk, Michael Backes, and Ben Stock. During that time, I was fortunate enough to join Ben Livshits and Ben Zorn at Microsoft Research in Redmond for an internship. The first works in this area have shown that while notifications are helpful to a significant fraction of operators, the vast majority of systems remain unpatched. Yet these malicious samples share syntactic similarities at an abstract level, which enables to bypass obfuscation and detect even unknown malware variants. As part of this experiment, we explored potential alternative notification channels beyond email, including social media and phone. 2016. To ease the burden of repeated password authentication on multiple sites, modern Web browsers provide password managers, which offer to automatically complete password fields on Web pages, after the password has been stored once. We find that more than 8% of them have unfiltered data flows from persistent storages to a dangerous sink, which showcases the developers’ inherent trust in the integrity of storage content. One of the worst attacks on the Web is Cross-Site Scripting (XSS), in which an attacker is able to inject their malicious JavaScript code into a Web application, giving this code full access to the victimized site. To ease the burden of repeated password authentication on multiple sites, modern Web browsers provide password managers, which offer to automatically complete password fields on Web pages, after the password has been stored once. This mismatch is exploited by DNS Rebinding. Kizzle is able to generate anti-virus signatures for detecting EKs, which compare favorably to manually created ones. Our attack allows reliable DNS Rebinding attacks, circumventing all currently deployed browser-based defense measures. Seeing these results, we pinpoint future directions in improving security notifications. As ScriptProtect is realized through a lightweight JavaScript instrumentation, it does not require changes to the browser and only incurs a low runtime overhead of about 6%. This exemption allows an adversary to import and execute dynamically generated scripts while a user visits an attacker-controlled Web site. 2020. “Complex Security Policy? Even though the analysis is entirely static, it yields a high detection accuracy of almost 99.5% and has a low false-negative rate of 0.54%. To improve the detection, we also combine the predictions of several modules. Gianluca Stringhini, Boston University. Click-jacking protection on the modern Web is commonly enforced via client-side security mechanisms for framing control, like the X-Frame-Options header (XFO) and Content Security Policy (CSP). Hence, we find the complexity of secure, yet functional content restriction gives CSP a bad reputation, resulting in operators not leveraging its potential to secure a site against the non-original attack vectors. “Client-Side Protection Against DOM-Based XSS Done Right (Tm).”, Lekies, Sebastian, Ben Stock, Martin Wentzel, and Martin Johns. “HideNoSeek: Camouflaging Malicious JavaScript in Benign ASTs.” In, Musch, Marius, Marius Steffens, Sebastian Roth, Ben Stock, and Martin Johns. Dies legt die Vermutung nahe, dass auch client-seitiges XSS an Bedeutung gewinnen koennte. From the security perspective, Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) is one of the most nefarious attacks against Web clients. The security of such applications is of the utmost importance, as exploits can have a devastating impact on personal and economic levels. To counter these attacks, the browser vendors introduced countermeasures, such as DNS Pinning, to mitigate the attack. 2015. “Your Scripts in My Page – What Could Possibly Go Wrong?”, Stock, Ben, Bernd Kaiser, Stephan Pfistner, Sebastian Lekies, and Martin Johns. One of the major disturbances for network providers in recent years have been Distributed Reflective Denial-of-Service (DRDoS) attacks. “Precise Client-Side Protection against DOM-Based Cross-Site Scripting.” In, Johns, Martin, Sebastian Lekies, and Ben Stock. 2019. Inspired by my PhD advisor Felix Freiling, since May 2020 I am introducing d for my inbox. Research has long since focussed on three categories of XSS: reflected, persistent, and DOM-based XSS. Motivated by our findings, we propose an alternative filter design for DOM-based XSS, that utilizes runtime taint tracking and taint-aware parsers to stop the parsing of attacker-controlled syntactic content. In recent years, the drive-by malware space has undergone significant consolidation. The Web has become highly interactive and an important driver for modern life, enabling information retrieval, social exchange, and online shopping. In combination with the aforementioned redirect logic, this enables us to bypass 10% of otherwise secure CSPs in the wild. “Walowdac-Analysis of a Peer-to-Peer Botnet.” In, Security Research Group of the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Busy Beaver Teaching Award for lecture "Foundations of Cybersecurity 1" at Saarland University (Winter Term 2018/2019), Busy Beaver Teaching Award for lecture "Web Security" at Saarland University (Summer Term 2018), Finalist for Best Dissertation Award (CAST e.V.) 2017. We implement our prototype using the latest features of PHP 7, leverage an efficient graph database to store code property graphs for PHP, and subsequently identify different types of Web application vulnerabilities by means of programmable graph traversals. Our analysis shows that 10% of the (distinct) framing control policies in the wild are inconsistent and most often do not provide any level of protection to at least one browser. Also, they lack semantic information to go beyond purely syntactic approaches. Our attack consists of changing the constructs of a malicious JavaScript sample to imitate a benign syntax. This evolution has not followed a security blueprint, resulting in many classes of vulnerabilities specific to the Web. Quoting his site: " I will fix a time interval d and after d time I will completely remove all unanswered email from my inbox that is older than d". In this paper, we propose JStap, a modular static JavaScript detection system, which extends the detection capability of existing lexical and AST-based pipelines by also leveraging control and data flow information. Due to the large volume of such malicious scripts, detection systems rely on static analyses to quickly process the vast majority of samples. We tested its compatibility on the Alexa Top 5,000 and found that 30% of these sites could benefit from ScriptProtect’s protection today without changes to their application code. CISPA Helmholtz Center for Information Security, Saarbruecken, Germany, Michael Backes. From the security perspective, Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) is one of the most nefarious attacks against Web clients. By using a combination of tracerouting and BGP data, we build statistical models which allow to estimate the TTL within that tolerance level. Therefore, in this paper, we present a large-scale study to gain insight into these causes. Therefore, in this paper, we present a large-scale study to gain insight into these causes. USENIX is committed to Open Access to the research presented at our events. Ben Stock (CISPA Helmholtz Center for Information Security) 14:10 - 14:50: Keynote: The Web we can Ship Web browsers act as an agent for billions of users on the web today. To demonstrate this, we conduct a thorough analysis of the current state-of-the-art in browser-based XSS filtering and uncover a set of conceptual shortcomings, that allow efficient creation of filter evasions, especially in the case of DOM-based XSS. 2016. “Kizzle: A Signature Compiler for Detecting Exploit Kits.” In, Stock, Ben, Giancarlo Pellegrino, Christian Rossow, Martin Johns, and Michael Backes. After treating the notification of affected parties as mere side-notes in research, our community has recently put more focus on how vulnerability disclosure can be conducted at scale. For those sites with vulnerable flaws from storage to sink, we find that at least 70% are directly exploitable by our attacker models. 2018. Deploying such a policy enables a Web developer to whitelist from where script code can be loaded, essentially constraining the capabilities of the attacker to only be able to execute injected code from said whitelist. To understand the reasons behind this, we run a notification campaign and subsequent survey, concluding that operators have often experienced the complexity of CSP (and given up), utterly unaware of the easy-to-deploy components of CSP. In this study, we identified 6,167 unique vulnerabilities distributed over 480 domains, showing that 9,6% of the examined sites carry at least one DOM- based XSS problem. Yet these malicious samples share syntactic similarities at an abstract level, which enables to bypass obfuscation and detect even unknown malware variants. Anne Christin Deutschen. 2016. Allerdings wird XSS primaer als ein server-seitiges Problem wahrgenommen, motiviert durch das Offenlegen von zahlreichen entsprechenden XSS-Schwachstellen. That is, if you haven't received an answer from me within d, assume you'll not get an answer anymore. My research interests lie within Web Security, Network Security, Reverse Engineering, and Vulnerability Notifications. This paper presents Kizzle, the first prevention technique specifically designed for finding exploit kits. I am a tenure-track faculty at the CISPA Helmholtz Center for Information Security. In such an attack, the attacker spoofs the IP address of a victim and sent a flood of tiny packets to vulnerable services which then respond with much larger replies to the victim. Doing so, we automatically generate sensible CSPs for all of the Top 10,000 sites and show that around one-third of all sites would still be susceptible to a bypass through script gadget sideloading due to heavy reliance on third parties which also host such libraries. 2013. “Eradicating DNS Rebinding with the Extended Same-Origin Policy.” In, Stock, Ben, Jan Göbel, Markus Engelberth, Felix Freiling, and Thorsten Holz. 2017. It is based on a frequency analysis of specific patterns, which are either predictive of benign or of malicious samples. One of the major disturbances for network providers in recent years have been Distributed Reflective Denial-of-Service (DRDoS) attacks. Drive-By downloads are socalled exploit kits and Sebastian Lekies, and Sebastian Lekies, Ben. Malicious JavaScript Detection. ” in, Stock, Ben, and Ben Stock, Benjamin. Not learn the correct TTL value what Could Possibly go Wrong? ”, ———, konnten wir 6.167 Verwundbarkeiten... 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